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Old 12-03-2008, 08:40 AM   #1
Tilth
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Patience and Gratitude Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah

Sabr is an Arabic word which comes from a root meaning to detain, refrain and stop. There is expression in Arabic, "so-and-so was killed sabran", which means that he was captured and detained until he died. In the spiritual sense, patience means to stop ourselves from despairing and panicking, to stop our tongues from complaining, and to stop our hands from striking our faces and tearing our clothes at times of grief and stress.

(Patience and Gratitude Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah p.12)



Abu 'Uthman said, "The one who has patience is the one who has trained himself to handle difficulties."

(Patience and Gratitude Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah p.12)



Amr ibn 'Uthman al-Makki said, "Patience means to keep close to Allah and to accept calmly the trials He sends, without complaining or feeling sad."

(Patience and Gratitude Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah p.12)



Al-Khawwas said, "Patience means to adhere to the rules of the Qur'an and Sunnah."

Another scholar said, "Patience means to refrain from complaining."

(Patience and Gratitude Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah p.12)



'Ali ibn Abi Talib [Radia-Allahu 'Anhu - "May Allah be pleased with him"] said, "Patience means to seek Allah's help."

(Patience and Gratitude Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah p.12)



A wise man said, "A man with wisdom as soon as adversity appears does that which a foolish man does after a month (i.e. he resorts to patience)."

(Patience and Gratitude Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah P.30)



One of the salaf said: "Believers and unbelievers alike may have patience at a time of adversity, but only people of strong faith can have patience at time of ease." Therefore Allah warned against the fitnah of wealth, wives and children:

"O you who believe! Let not your riches or your children divert you from the remembrance of Allah. If any act thus, the loss is their own." (al-Munafiqun 63:9)

"O you who believe! Truly, among your wives and your children are (some that are) enermies to yourselves: so beware of them!" (at-Taghabun 64:14)

The enmity referred to in these ayat is not that which results from hatred and conflict, but that which results from love and care, that might prevent parents from religious duties such as hijrah, jihad, seeking knowledge and giving sadaqah.

(Patience and Gratitude Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah P.37,38)



Instruction. Patience is enjoined upon believers:

"And be patient for your patient is but by Allah..." (an-Nahl 16:127)

"Now await in patience the command of your Lord..." (at-Tur 52:48)

(Patience and Gratitude Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah P.44)



That which is opposite to patience is forbidden:

"...and be in no haste about the (Unbelievers)..." (al-Ahqaf 46:35)

"So lose not heart nor fall in despair..." (Al 'Imran 3:139)

"...and be not like the Companion of the Fish (i.e. Yunus) - when he cried out in agony." (al-Qalam 68:48)

(Patience and Gratitude Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah P.44)



Patience is made a condition of success and prosperity:

"O you who believe! Persevere in patience and constancy; vie in such perseverance; strengthen each other; and fear Allah; that you may prosper."

(Al 'Imran 3:200)

(Patience and Gratitude Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah P.44)



The rewards of those who exercise patience will be doubled:

"Twice will they be given their reward, for that they have persevered..." (al-Qasas 28:54)

"...Those who patiently persevere will truly receive a reward without measure!" (az-Zumar 39:10)

Sulayman ibn Qasim said that the reward of every deed is known, except for the reward of patience, which will be like heavy rain.

(Patience and Gratitude Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah P.44, 45)



Patience and iman are prerequisites for leadership in religion:

"And We appointed, from among them, leaders, giving guidance under Our commands, so long as they persevered with patience and continued to have faith in Our Signs." (as-Sajdah 32:24)

(Patience and Gratitude Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah P.45)



Patience is the way to earn the companionship of Allah:

"...and be patient and persevering: for Allah is with those who patiently persevere." (al-Anfal 8:46)

Abu Ali ad-Daqqaq said, "People who have patience are the true winners in this world and the next, because they have the companionship of Allah."

(Patience and Gratitude Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah P.45)



Allah will reward those who have patience with a three-fold reward - blessings, mercy and guidance:

"...but give glad tidings to those who patiently persevere - who say, when afflicted with calamity: 'To Allah we belong, and to Him is our return' - they are those on whom (descend) blessings from their Lord, and Mercy and they are the ones that receive guidance." (al-Baqarah 2:155-7)

When people came to offer their condolences to one of the salaf (the early generations of Muslims, especially the Sahabah and the Tabi'in.), for some calamity that had befallen him, he said, "Why should I not practice patience, when Allah has promised those who have patience three rewards, each of which is better than this world and everything in it?"

(Patience and Gratitude Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah P.45)



Patience is a means of seeking Allah's help:

"...seek (Allah's) help with patient perseverance and prayer..." (al-Baqarah 2:45)

So whoever has no patience has no help.

(Patience and Gratitude Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah P.45)



Patience and taqwa (Consciousness of Allah, especially fear and awe of Him) are conditions for Allah's help and support:

"Yea - if you remain firm, and act aright, even if the enemy should rush here on you in hot haste, your Lord would help you with five thousand angels making a terrific onslaught." (Al 'Imran 3:125)

(Patience and Gratitude Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah P.46)



Patience and taqwa are a great protection against the cunning of enemies:

"...But if you are constant and do right, not the least harm will their cunning do to you..." (Al 'Imran 3:120)

(Patience and Gratitude Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah P.46)



The angels will salute the people of patience in Jannah:

"...and angels shall enter unto them from every gate (with the salutation): 'Peace unto you for that you persevered in patience! Now how excellent is the final Home!' " (ar-Ra'd 13:24)

(Patience and Gratitude Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah P.46)



Allah made it permissible to treat our enemies no worse than they treat us, but He has made it clear that practicing patience is better:

"And if you do catch them out, catch them out no worse than they catch you out: but if you show patience, that is indeed the best (course) for those who are patient." (an-Nahl 16:126)

(Patience and Gratitude Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah P.46)



Allah made patience and right actions a condition for forgiveness and great reward:

"Not so those who show patience and constancy, and work righteousness; for them is forgiveness (of wrong actions) and a great reward." (Hud 11:11)

(Patience and Gratitude Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah P.46)



Allah has made patience a standard of courage and determination in the conduct of one's affairs:

"But indeed if any show patience and forgive, that would truly be an exercise of courageous will and resolution in the conduct of affairs." (ash-Shura 42:43)

"(Luqman said 'O my son! ...enjoin what is just, and forbid what is wrong: and bear with patient constancy whate'er betide you, for this is firmness (of purpose) in (the conduct of) affairs." (Luqman 31:17)

(Patience and Gratitude Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah P.46, 47)



Allah has promised the believers His support and victory, and has said that they deserve this because of their patience:

"...The fair promise of your Lord was fulfilled for the Children of Israel, because they had patience and constancy..." (al-A'raf 7:137)

(Patience and Gratitude Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah P.47)



Allah has made patience a condition of His love:

"How many of the Prophets fought (in Allah's way), and with them (fought) large bands of godly men? But they never lost heart if they met with disaster in Allah's way, nor did they weaken (in will) nor give in. And Allah loves those who are firm and steadfast (as-sabirin)." (Al 'Imran 3:146)

(Patience and Gratitude Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah P.47)



Allah has made patience a condition of receiving many blessings:

"But those who had been granted (true) knowledge said: 'Alas for you! The reward of Allah (in the Hereafter) is best for those who believe and work righteousness: but this none shall attain, save those who steadfastly persevere (in good).' " (al-Qasas 28:80)

"And no one will be granted such goodness except those who exercise patience and self-restraint - none but persons of the greatest good fortune." (Fussilat 41:35)

(Patience and Gratitude Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah P.47)



Allah has mentioned that only those who practice patience and gratitude will benefit from the Signs of Allah:

"Do you not see that the ships sail through the ocean by the grace of Allah? - that He may show you of His Signs? Verily in this are Signs for all who constantly persevere and give thanks." (Luqman 31:31)

"And among His Signs are the ships, smooth-running through the ocean, (tall) as mountains. If it be His Will, He can still the Wind: then they would become motionless on the back of the (ocean). Verily in this are Signs for everyone who patiently perseveres and is grateful." (ash-Shura 42:32-33)

(Patience and Gratitude Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah P.47, 48)



Allah praised Ayyub for his patience:

"...Truly We found him of patience and constancy, how excellent in Our service! Ever did he turn (to Us)!" (Sad 38:44)

Allah described Ayyub as excellent because of his patience, so the person who fails to exercise patience when it is necessary will be regarded as a failure and a sinner.

(Patience and Gratitude Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah P.48)



Allah has given a general ruling that whoever does not have faith and does not belong to the people of truth and patience, is in a state of loss. This means that the only true winner are people of patience:

"By (the Token of) Time (through the Ages), verily Man is in loss, except such as have Faith, and do right actions, and (join together) in mutual teaching of Truth, and of Patience and Constancy." (al-'Asr 103:1-3)

Commenting on this surah, Imam ash-Shafi'i said, "If people thought deeply enough about this surah, it would provide enough guidance, as man cannot attain perfection without perfecting these two things, his knowledge and his actions, i.e. his faith and right actions. As he is required to perfect himself, so he is required to perfect others, which is joining together in mutual teaching of the truth. The foundation of all this is patience."

(Patience and Gratitude Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah P.48)



Allah has given a general ruling that whoever does not have faith and does not belong to the people of truth and patience, is in a state of loss. This means that the only true winner are people of patience:

"By (the Token of) Time (through the Ages), verily Man is in loss, except such as have Faith, and do right actions, and (join together) in mutual teaching of Truth, and of Patience and Constancy." (al-'Asr 103:1-3)

Commenting on this surah, Imam ash-Shafi'i said, "If people thought deeply enough about this surah, it would provide enough guidance, as man cannot attain perfection without perfecting these two things, his knowledge and his actions, i.e. his faith and right actions. As he is required to perfect himself, so he is required to perfect others, which is joining together in mutual teaching of the truth. The foundation of all this is patience."

(Patience and Gratitude Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah P.48)



Allah has mentioned that the main characteristic of those who attain salvation is patience and compassion:

"Then will he be of those who believe and enjoin patience, (constancy, and self-restraint), and enjoin deeds of kindness and compassion. Such are the companions of the right hand." (al-Balad 90:17-18)

(Patience and Gratitude Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah P. 49)



Allah has mentioned patience... alongside the pillars of Islam and iman, as He has mentioned it alongside salah:

"Nay, seek (Allah's) help with patient perseverance and prayer..." (al-Baqarah 2:45)

(Patience and Gratitude Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah P.49)



Allah has mentioned patience... alongside right actions:

"Not so those who show patience and constancy, and do right actions; for them is forgiveness (of wrong actions) and a great reward," (Hud 11:11)

(Patience and Gratitude Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah P.49)



Allah has mentioned patience... alongside gratitude (shukr):

"... Verily in this are Signs for everyone who patiently perseveres and is grateful." (ash-shura 42:32-33)

(Patience and Gratitude Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah P.49)



Allah has mentioned patience... alongside truth:

"...and (join together) in the mutual teaching of truth, and of patience and constancy." (al-'Asr 103:1-3)

(Patience and Gratitude Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah P.49)



Allah has mentioned patience... alongside compassion:

"...those who believe and enjoin patience, (constancy, and self-restraint), and enjoin deeds of kindness and compassion..." (al-Balad 90:17)

(Patience and Gratitude Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah P.49)



Allah has mentioned patience... alongside faith:

"...so long as they persevered with patience and continued to have faith in Our Signs." (as-Sajdah 32:24)

(Patience and Gratitude Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah P.49)



Allah has mentioned patience... alongside truth:

"...for true men and women, for men and women who are patient and constant..." (al-Ahzab 33:35)

Allah has made patience the means for attaining His love, His companionship, His help and support, and His good rewards. This is sufficient honour and blessings.

(Patience and Gratitude Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah P.49)



As-Safar said: Abu Bakr fell ill, so some people visited him and asked whether they should call a doctor for him. He said, "The Doctor has already seen me." They asked, "What did he say?" Abu Bakr said, "He said, 'I do what I want.'" (Meaning, that Allah is his "Doctor" and can make him sick or healthy as He wills). (Ahmad)

(Patience and Gratitude Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah P.55)



'Umar ibn al-Khattab [Radia-Allahu 'Anhu - "May Allah be pleased with him"] said, "The best days we ever lived were by virtue of patience, and if patience were to take the shape of a man, he would be a noble and generous man."

(Patience and Gratitude Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah P.55)



Ali ibn Abi Talib [Radia-Allahu 'Anhu - "May Allah be pleased with him"] said, "The relation of patience to iman is like the relation of the head to the body. If the head is chopped off, the body becomes useless." Then he raised his voice and said, "Certainly, the one who has no patience has no iman, and patience is like a riding-beast that never gets tired."

(Patience and Gratitude Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah P.55)



'Umar ibn 'Abdul-'Aziz said, "Allah never bestows a blessing on His slave then takes it away and compensates him by giving him patience, but that with which he has been compensated is better than that which has been taken away from him."

(Patience and Gratitude Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah P.55)



Beautiful patience (sabr jamil - Surah Yusuf 12:83) and panic

Mujahid said, "Beautiful patience is patience without any panic."

And ibn Qays said, "Beautiful patience means to be content with adversity and to surrender to the will of Allah."

(Patience and Gratitude Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah P.56)



Yunus ibn Yazid said: I asked Rabi'ah ibn 'Abdul-Rahman, "What is the ultimate of patience?" He said, "To be outwardly the same at the time of affliction as one was the day before it struck." (This does not mean that a person does not or should not fell pain or anguish; patience in this instance means that one refrains from panicking and complaining.)

(Patience and Gratitude Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah P.56)



Commenting on the meaning of beautiful patience, Qiyas ibn al-Hajjaj said, "The person who is suffering from some affliction should behave in such a way that nobody is able to distinguish him from others."

(Patience and Gratitude Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah P.56)



Iman is in two halves: half is patience (sabr) and half is gratitude (shukr). Therefore Allah has mentioned patience and gratitude alongside one another:

"Verily in this are signs for all who constantly persevere and give thanks." (Ibrahim 14:5; Luqman 31:31; Saba' 34:19; ash-Shura 42:33)

(Patience and Gratitude Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah P.61)



Iman is a term which covers words, deeds and intentions, all of which are based on one of two things, action or abstinence. Action refers to performing a deed in accordance with the instructions of Allah, which is the reality of gratitude. Abstinence, as in refraining from wrong action, requires patience. The whole of religion is embodied in these two things: carrying out that which Allah has commanded, and refraining from that which Allah has prohibited.

(Patience and Gratitude Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah P.61)



Iman is based on two pillars: yaqin (conviction) and patience, which are referred to in the following ayah:

"And We appointed, from among them, leaders, giving guidance under Our command, so long as they persevere with patience and continued to have faith in Our Signs." (as-Sajdah 32:24)

It is through faith that we know reality of Allah's commands and prohibitions, of reward and punishment, and through patience that we carry out His instructions and abstain from that which He has prohibited. A person can never come to believe in Allah's commands and prohibitions, and in reward and punishment, except through faith, and that is truly from Allah. And we can never carry out Allah's instructions and abstain from that which He has prohibited except through patience. Therefore patience is half of iman, and the other half is gratitude.

(Patience and Gratitude Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah P.61-62)



Man has two powers, the power of doing and the power of abstaining, which control all his behaviour. So a person will do what he likes and abstain from what he dislikes. The whole of religion is doing or abstaining, carrying out the instructions of Allah or abstaining from that which He has prohibited, neither of which can be accomplished without patience.

(Patience and Gratitude Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah P.62)



The whole of religion is hope and fear, and the true believer is the one who is both hopeful and fearful. Allah says:

"They used to call on Us with love and reverence, and humble themselves before Us." (al-Anbiya 21:90)



The Prophet (peace be upon him) used to pray: "O Allah, I have surrendered my soul to You, and turned my face to You. My (own) affairs I commit to Allah and I seek Your protection, in hope of You and in fear of You" (al-Bukhari).

So the believer is the one who is both hopeful and fearful, but hope and fear can only be based on the foundation of patience: fear should make the believer patient, and his hope should lead to gratitude.

(Patience and Gratitude Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah P.62)



Any action done by man is either beneficial or harmful to him in this world and the next, or else it is beneficial to him in one world and harmful to him in the other. The best course for man is to do that which is beneficial to him in the Hereafter, and abstain from that which is harmful to him in the Hereafter. This is the reality of iman: to do what is good for him, and that is gratitude; and to abstain from that which harms him, and that is patience.

(Patience and Gratitude Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah P.62)



Man is always in a situation where he has to carry out an instruction from Allah, or avoid something which Allah has prohibited, or accept something that Allah has decreed. In all cases, he has to face the situation with patience and gratitude. Carrying out Allah's instructions is gratitude, and abstaining from prohibited things and being content with the decree of Allah constitutes patience.

(Patience and Gratitude Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah P.62-63)



Man is constantly being pulled in two opposing directions: should he respond to the lure of this world of desires and pleasures, or should he answer the call of Allah and the Hereafter, with the eternal Paradise that Allah has prepared for His friend (wali)? Going against the call of whims and desires is patience, and responding to the call of Allah and the Hereafter is gratitude.

(Patience and Gratitude Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah P.63)



Religion is based on two principles: determination and perseverance (patience), which are referred to in the du'a of the Prophet (peace be upon him) :

"O Allah, I ask You for perseverance in all my affairs, and I ask You for the determination to stay on the straight and narrow path."

(Patience and Gratitude Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah P.63)



Religion is based on truth (haqq) and patience, which is referred to in the ayah:



"...and they (join together) in the mutual teaching of truth, and of patience and constancy." (al-'Asr 103:3)



Man is required to work according to the truth, both by himself and with others, which is the reality of gratitude, but he cannot do that without patience, therefore patience is half of iman. And Allah knows best.

(Patience and Gratitude Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah P.63)



Patience both for the sake of Allah and by the help of Allah. A person will have patience by the help of Allah for the sake of Allah, realising that he has no power of his own whatsoever. This is the highest degree of patience.

(Patience and Gratitude Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah P.65)



Patience for the sake of Allah but not by the help of Allah. Such people may want to have patience for the sake of Allah, but they are not actively seeking His help, and their trust and reliance (tawakkul) is weak. Such people will have a good ending, but they are weak and cannot achieve most of what they want to achieve. This is the situation of a sincere but weak believer.

(Patience and Gratitude Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah P.66)



Patience by the help of Allah. Such a person seeks Allah's help and puts his trust in Him, admitting that he has no power or strength whatsoever, but his patience is not for the sake of Allah, as his patience is not for reasons of faith. This will achieve his aims, but his ending may be the worst. An example of such people are the leaders of the kuffar and the followers of the Shaytan, as their patience is by the help of Allah, but is not for the sake of Allah.

(Patience and Gratitude Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah P.66)



No kind of patience whatsoever. This is the lowest degree, and a person of this type deserves all sort of failures.

Those who have patience for the sake of Allah and by the help of Allah are those who are strong and achieve much. Those who have patience for the sake of Allah, but not by the help of Allah, are good people, but weak and helpless. Those who have patience by the help of Allah, but not for the sake of Allah, are capable, but evil. Those who have neither patience for the sake of Allah nor by the help of Allah are doomed to failure.

(Patience and Gratitude Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah P.66)
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