Important: Read Before You Post

Go Back   AlMaghrib Forums > AlMaghrib Seminars > Route 114: Sciences of the Qur'aan - QRN 101

Reply
 
Thread Tools
Old 11-23-2006, 12:27 PM   #1
AbdulBasit
Ummat Muhammad
 
Join Date: Nov 2006
Location: Maryland
Posts: 73
Question qiraa'aat as-saheehah!!- ---

I have a question on the qiraa'aat of Quraan. i remember that one of the conditions of a qiraa'ah to be authentic, is that it must match the uthmani mus-haf. I see that this is the case, in lots of places. But I also see that in some places (in many authentic qiraa'aat), that the word could not possibly match the uthmani mushaf....for example..: In many qiraa'aat, the word هُزُوًا is read as هُزُءًا. These 2 couldn't be identical in the same mus-haf. But nevertheless, both readings are authentic. Like, 'Huzuan' comes in several readings.

Another very common thing is this: You know in surah faatihah:صراط . In another reading (khalaf from hamzah and another one...) it is زراط. And in another one it is with a 'seen'. These are all saheeh qiraa'aat but they, 'can not possibly' all match the same uthamani mus-haf. And there are other examples too...

So if I could get an explanation; that again, what r the conditions of an authentic qiraa'ah? (1) must have authentic chains (2) must conform to arabic grammar but... about the last one: (3) must match the uthmani mus-haf? How culd the mushaf accomodate these differences I mentioned, and many others..

**** --
Another example is, suarh mulk: قل أرئيتم إن أهلكنِيَ الله. In the reading of hamzah it is:أهلكنِ الله. ًWithout the 'yaa'. So... And another example is: in the same surah (al-mulk), in two ayat (verses 17-18): فستعلمون كيف نذير. And the next ayah:فكيف كان نكير. So in another authentic reading (an ya'qoob) bothe ayahs end with a long yaa'. Nadheeree, and Nakeeree. In Surah ikhlaas and kaafiroon: (kufuan instead of kufuwan) and in (...wa liya deen) it becomes, in many qiraa'aat (..wa lee deenee). I just remebered one that is commonly used in many tafseers (like Ibn katheer) -{ and as we have learned from the class, you can only use saheeh qira'at in tafseer.

In surah takweer: ''wa maa huwa 'ala-lghaibi bi daneen." In the other qiraa'ah it is: "....'ala-lghaibi bi zhaneen." -with a ظ. So again, I just was wondering, how the 'uthmani mus-haf could accomodate all this? And hence, I thought that 'matching the uthmani mus-haf script was not neccesary', in order for a qiraa'ah to be saheeh.

So if you could just...explain a little on that.
Jazaakallahu Khairan,
'AbdulBaasit *

*--I just recently signed onto this site, after the 'Uloom al-quraan class at GMU.'
AbdulBasit is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 11-24-2006, 08:48 AM   #2
AbdulBasit
Ummat Muhammad
 
Join Date: Nov 2006
Location: Maryland
Posts: 73
Exclamation Re: qiraa'aat as-saheehah!!- ---

Assalaamu Alaikum !!

Some more examples of an authentic mutawaatir qiraa'ah not matching the uthmani mus-haf script (in addition to my 2 previous post examples) are...:

(1) In hafs you say: زكريَّا. And in in another recitation it is: زكريَّاء. So how could the script accomodate both ways? One is with a hamzah and the other is without..?

(2) Similar to the above, ...So we say: نبِيٌّ. In warsh I believe or another saheeh qiraa'ah it is: نبِيئٌ. With an extra hamza...

The point is probably already clear from all the other examples in my last 2 posts {one citing examples of this, and the other had examples of major tabieen reporting that their teachers (Sahaabah such as Ibn Masood and Ibn Abbaas and Ubayy) that they used to recite the Quraan in like this. And they would recite by adding words (of course, which the Prophet taught them)

Here's an update on some of those examples

(1) Surah Baqarah verse: 127. Ibn Masood and Ubayy would add 'ويقولان' after 'Ismaa'eel'.

(2)In same surah, verse213, Ibn abbaas and Ubaay would add 'فاختلفوا' after Ummatan waahidah."

(3) Many examples of this are found in Surah Kahf and other suwar.

Allah knows Best
AbdulBasit is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 11-28-2006, 11:02 AM   #3
TajweedDoctor
Qabeelat Haadi
 
Join Date: Feb 2006
Location: San Jose, CA
Posts: 57
Re: qiraa'aat as-saheehah!!- ---

as Salaamu `Alaikum wa Rahmatullaah,

In sha Allah the first step is to understand that the "Mushaf `Uthmani" is not just one Mushaf, but they are 6 in number, written by the Sahabah at the time of the Khilafah of `Uthman.

So when we say that one of the conditions for a Qira'ah to be accepted is that it must conform to Mushaf Uthmani, it means that the Qira'ah must be found in one of the six Masahif written and sent to the different Islamic lands during the time of `Uthman, radhi Allahu `anh.

So if a change in a word, for example, is not found in one Mushaf, it will be found in another.

All the Qira'aat we have documented today are all found in the 6 original Masahif, and with each Mushaf, a teacher to teach them the Qur'an was sent to make sure the Qur'an is recited precisely.

wallaahu A'lam.
TajweedDoctor is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 04-03-2007, 06:10 PM   #4
akamil
Ummat Muhammad
 
Join Date: Apr 2007
Location: Oakland, CA
Posts: 4
Re: qiraa'aat as-saheehah!!- ---

Assalamu Alaikum,
I am not an expert in this area, but I will try to answer to the best of my ability.

First, it is important to understand what was and was not included in the Uthmani mushafs. The committee of Uthman purposely chose a writing convention that would allow as many of the authentic variants to be read as possible. In particular, the mushafs did not contain any dots (nuqat) or vowel markings (harakat). The letters were only written with their skeletons, so there was no distinction between letters that share the same skeleton (e.g. ب, ت, ن, at the beginning and middle of a word). As such, it was possible, for example, to read both بُشْراً (as in Hafs `an `Asim) and نُشُراً (as in Warsh `an Nafi`) in Surah Naml, Ayat 63, among other places. Without vowels and dots, both words look the same. The mushafs also omitted letters in certain cases, particularly ا, و, and ي. This is why the word مالك in Surah Fatihah (in Hafs) is written as ملك. Again, this was done to allow the multiple readings that existed. There are also a few cases of other letters being omitted, such as the second ن in ننجى in Surah Anbiya’, Ayat 88. Finally, hamzas were completely omitted from the mushafs. So كُفُواً and كُفُؤاً are written the same according to the Uthmani mushafs, as are نَبِيّ and نَبِيء (Hafs reads the former, Warsh the latter, in both cases).

There are also a few cases where a word is written with one particular letter, but some of the recitations read it with another, reflecting the different dialects (ahruf) that the Qur’an was revealed in. For an example in Hafs, see Surah Baqarah, Ayat 245. In the mushafs printed in Madinah, the word يبصط is written with a ص, as the Uthmani mushafs wrote it, but the modern mushaf contains a small س above the letter to signify that in Hafs, it is read with a س. There are a handful of words like this across the ten recitations: يبصط, بصطة, مصيطر, مصيطرون, صراط, الصراط, and بضنين are the ones I can think of off the top of my head (صراط and الصراط are read with a س in Qunbul `an ibn Kathir and Ruways `an Ya`qub, and بضنين is read with a ظ in ibn Kathir, among other recitations). These are generally written in the Uthmani format, but in the modern mushaf, with the actual letter to be read on top, as in the Hafs mushaf. For example, see Surah Fatihah in Qunbul `an ibn Kathir (at http://live.islamweb.net/quran_list/qunbol/s1.pdf) and Surah Takwir (at http://live.islamweb.net/quran_list/qunbol/s81.pdf).

Now, I will address each of the examples you provided in turn.
  • هُزُوًا: As mentioned above, hamzas and vowel markings were omitted from the Uthmani mushaf. Both variants (as well as a third, with a hamza but a damma on the middle letter) were written in the same way. If you examine the mushaf in Khalaf `an Hamza (e.g. in Surah Baqarah, Ayat 67), which reads the word with a hamza, you will notice that the skeleton is written the same as in Hafs (see http://live.islamweb.net/quran_list/khalaf/quran.pdf for the mushaf).
  • صراط: The case with س is explained above. As for Khalaf `an Hamza, it is the result of a particular tajweed rule called ishmam as-sad zayan (إشمام الصاد زاياً). The word is not actually read with a ز. The correct way to read it is to shape your mouth as you would for a ص, but instead of making an ‘s’ sound, to make a ‘z’ sound. Or, if you will, similar to a ظ, but without sticking your tongue through your teeth. If you want to hear an example, you can access an mp3 of Surah Fatihah from http://audio.islamweb.net/audio/inde...qid=609&rid=13. Other words are also read with this rule in Khalaf `an Hamza (and some words in Khallad `an Hamza), such as أَصْدَقُ in Surah Nisa’ (Ayahs 87 and 122). In all cases, there is no difference at all even in modern mushafs in how these words are written for this rule, as you can see in the mushaf linked above.
  • أهلكنِيَ الله: Both variants have the same letters; the difference is that the ي has a sukun on it in the second case, and thus is not read because of the shadda in الله. Again, see the mushaf of Khalaf `an Hamza.
  • نذير, نكير: As mentioned above, the Uthmani mushaf omits ي in many cases. In modern mushafs for cases like this, a small ي is written after the word. In Hafs, this occurs in many places after the pronoun ه, such as in بِهِ. For a more interesting case in Hafs, see Surah Naml, Ayat 36.
  • كُفُواً: This case is identical to هُزُوًا.
  • لِيَ دين: As mentioned before, the Uthmani mushaf did not include short vowels and omitted ي in certain cases, so both readings are compatible. (In actuality, the various readings here all mean exactly the same thing. For the first word, the fatha does not affect the meaning, but is the result of a rule that differs among the various recitations. For the second word, grammatically speaking, the kasra on the ن implies the first person possessive, even without the ي. Were it not first person possessive, then the vowel on the ن would have to be a damma.)
  • زكريَّا, نبِيٌّ: As mentioned before, the Uthmani mushaf did not include hamzas.
As you can see, all the above examples are compatible with each other according to the Uthmani writing convention.

For your last examples, where some companions would add a word, first recall the conditions for a recitation to be acceptable:
  • It must be authentic and mutawatir (mass-transmitted). The latter condition is very important, as it assures us that there is no possibility of error in the transmission, whether intentional or accidental.
  • It must conform to Arabic grammar. Note that this point is not agreed upon by all the scholars, as the Qur’an is taken as the definition of Arabic grammar. However, since none of the authentic recitations contradict Arabic grammar anyway, this is a moot point.
  • It must conform to the Uthmani mushafs. (More on this later.)
The cases where companions would add a word violate rules 1 and 3. Though they are authentic, they are not mutawatir, and they do not conform to the Uthmani text. (This, of course, is not a coincidence, since, for the most part, the companions would only teach according to the Uthmani text.) As such, they cannot be considered part of the Qur’an.

Finally, to elaborate on the point that TajweedDoctor brought up. As mentioned above, the committee of Uthman chose a writing convention that would accomodate multiple authentic readings from the same text. However, of the thousands of differences among the authentic readings, a small number could not be accommodated by the same text. In such a case, the committee wrote one reading in some of the six mushafs and the other in the rest. These cases number no more than 60 or so among all the mushafs, and consequently, the recitations. There are exactly 11 such differences between Hafs and Warsh. For an example, see the last ayat of Surah Shams, where it is ولا in Hafs but فلا in Warsh (see http://live.islamweb.net/quran_list/warsh/s91.pdf if you do not have access to a Warsh mushaf). In these cases, a recitation conforms to the Uthmani text if it conforms to any of the readings found among the six mushafs.

For further information, I recommend An Introduction to the Sciences of the Qur’aan by Yasir Qadhi (one of the Al-Maghrib instructors) and The History of the Qur’anic Text by M.M. Al-Azami. Also, you can find mushafs in PDF format for many narrations, with color coding for tajweed rules, at http://audio.islamweb.net/audio/index.php?page=rewayat.

These are the answers to your questions, to the best of my abilities. Whatever is correct is from Allah, and any shortcomings are from myself, and I ask forgiveness for them. And all praise is to Allah.

Wassalam,
Amir Kamil
akamil is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 11-25-2007, 03:35 PM   #5
Halid
Ummat Muhammad
 
Join Date: Jul 2007
Location: world
Posts: 1
Re: qiraa'aat as-saheehah!!- ---

Quote:
Originally Posted by akamil
you can find mushafs in PDF format for many narrations, with color coding for tajweed rules, at http://audio.islamweb.net/audio/index.php?page=rewayat.
Salamun Alaykum brother Amir Kamil,

From your referral I couldn't find pdf mushaf with color coding for tajweed rules. Can you please send the link specifically to such mushaf?

May Allah increase your i'lm and may He reward you,
Halid
Halid is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 11-24-2008, 02:03 PM   #6
AbdulBasit
Ummat Muhammad
 
Join Date: Nov 2006
Location: Maryland
Posts: 73
Re: qiraa'aat as-saheehah!!- ---

Thank you for clarifying, my beloved brothers.

Allaahu Yahfazhkum!

I am very, extremely grateful to you, for taking the time -- to give me this awesome response, plus those nice links ((islamweb)) !


Salaam,
abdelbasit khan.
AbdulBasit is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 11-25-2008, 12:02 AM   #7
Ibrahim ibnImran
Qabeelat Wasat
 
Join Date: Aug 2007
Location: ?
Posts: 1,168
Re: qiraa'aat as-saheehah!!- ---

Quote:
Originally Posted by akamil
Assalamu Alaikum,
I am not an expert in this area, but I will try to answer to the best of my ability.
wa 'alaikum asSalaam wa rahmatullahi wa barakaatuhu

JazaakAllahu khair br. akamil (if you're still out there), this is my first time reading that post, alhamdulillah. I didn't even know 'alayhum was a word!

May Allah increase you in knowledge.


And I agree islamweb is awesome.




mods, please leave the links, they're related to class material and the site has been recommended by instructors in the past

Last edited by Ibrahim; 11-25-2008 at 12:21 AM.
Ibrahim ibnImran is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 11-25-2008, 12:42 AM   #8
Anti_Shaytan
Qabeelat Durbah
 
Anti_Shaytan's Avatar
 
Join Date: Aug 2005
Location: JC, shun
Posts: 2,554
Re: qiraa'aat as-saheehah!!- ---

Can the 6 Uthmani masahif be found online? If so can someone direct me to where they can be located.
__________________
Who needs a trophy when you've been called the Jewel of AlMaghrib, you've been told you deserve a Crown, you've been called the Heart of AlMaghrib, and about you it has been said that every standard known to man has been shattered by you...but if a shiny little object makes you happy, go wild.
Anti_Shaytan is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 11-28-2008, 09:44 AM   #9
AbdulBasit
Ummat Muhammad
 
Join Date: Nov 2006
Location: Maryland
Posts: 73
Re: qiraa'aat as-saheehah!!- ---

Al-Hamdulillaah, nice to hear from you as well. JAK for your du'aa'. May Allah give you the same and even better. May He reward you for your sa'ee. إن هذا كان لكم جزءًا وكان سعيكم مشكورًا

In sha Allah, once Imaam Karim returns from Hajj -- I will give him your salaam.

* Wow, what a statement! العلم ما نفع ليس ما حفظ ~ Subhanallah!
AbdulBasit is offline   Reply With Quote
Reply


Currently Active Users Viewing This Thread: 1 (0 members and 1 guests)
 
Thread Tools

Posting Rules
You may not post new threads
You may not post replies
You may not post attachments
You may not edit your posts

BB code is On
Smilies are On
[IMG] code is On
HTML code is Off

Forum Jump


All times are GMT -4. The time now is 01:34 PM.


Powered by vBulletin® Version 3.8.7
Copyright ©2000 - 2015, vBulletin Solutions, Inc.
All content copyright © 2005 AlMaghrib Institute. All rights reserved. No part of this site may be copied without written permission from the administration. The views, posts, and opinions expressed by members of the forum are not necessarily those of the staff and management of AlMaghrib or the Institute itself.